Google video Doodle celebrates the 80th birthday of English theoretical physicist, cosmologist, and author Stephen Hawking, who was a Director of Research at the Centre for Theoretical Cosmology within the University of Cambridge, on January 8, 2022.
Who was Stephen Hawking?
Stephen William Hawking was born on January 8, 1942, in Oxford into a family of doctors. He was an English theoretical physicist whose theory of detonating black holes drew upon both relativity theory and quantum mechanics. He likewise worked with space-time singularities.
Interested by how the universe worked since early on, his interest and intellect procured him the nickname “Einstein.” Following a diagnosis with a neurodegenerative disease at 21, the music of composer Richard Wagner and the caring help of his future wife Jane Wilde motivated Hawking to commit himself to physics, math, and cosmology.
Stephen Hawking studied physics at University College, Oxford (B.A., 1962), and Trinity Hall, Cambridge (Ph.D., 1966). He was selected as a research fellow at Gonville and Caius College at Cambridge. In the mid-1960s Hawking contracted amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, a hopeless degenerative neuromuscular disease. He kept on working despite the disease’s progressively disabling impacts.
In October 1959, at 17 years old, Stephen Hawking started his university education at University College, Oxford, where he got a first-class BA degree in physics. In October 1962 he started his graduate work at Trinity Hall, Cambridge, where in March 1966 he acquired his Ph.D. degree in applied mathematics and theoretical physics, specializing in general relativity and cosmology.
In 1963, Stephen Hawking was diagnosed with an early-onset slow-progressing form of motor neuron disease (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis – ALS, for short) that gradually, over the decades, paralyzed him. After the deficiency of his speech, he communicated through a speech-generating device at first through the use of a handheld switch, and eventually by using a single cheek muscle.
In 1965, Hawking defended his doctoral thesis at the University of Cambridge, “Properties of Expanding Universes,” which introduced the revolutionary theory that existence started from a singularity, a point both vastly small and thick, most popular today as the key characteristic of black holes.
That year, Stephen Hawking was acknowledged as a research fellow at Cambridge’s Gonville and Caius College—his academic home for a lifetime of research. Hawking’s obsession with black holes prompted his 1974 discovery that particles could get away from black holes. This theory, authored by Hawking radiation, is broadly viewed as his most significant contribution to physics.
Stephen Hawking worked basically in the field of general relativity and especially on the physics of black holes. In 1971 he proposed the formation, following the big bang, of various objects containing however much one billion tons of mass yet occupying just the space of a proton. These objects, called mini black holes, are one of a kind in that their massive mass and gravity necessitate that they are administered by the laws of relativity, while their minute size necessitates that the laws of quantum mechanics apply to them too.
In 1974 Stephen Hawking suggested that, as per the predictions of quantum theory, black holes emit subatomic particles until they exhaust their energy lastly detonate. Hawking’s work significantly prodded efforts to theoretically outline the properties of black holes, objects concerning which it was recently believed that nothing could be known. His work was additionally significant because it showed these properties’ relationship to the laws of classical thermodynamics and quantum mechanics.
Stephen Hawking’s scientific works included a collaboration with Roger Penrose for gravitational singularity theorems in the framework of general relativity and the theoretical prediction that black holes emit radiation, frequently called Hawking radiation. At first, Hawking radiation was controversial.
By the late 1970s and following the publication of further research, the discovery was broadly acknowledged as a significant breakthrough in theoretical physics. Hawking was first to set out a hypothesis of cosmology clarified by an association of the overall hypothesis of relativity and quantum mechanics. He was a vivacious ally of the many-worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics.
Stephen Hawking’s contributions to physics earned him many exceptional honors. In 1974 the Royal Society. In 1974 the Royal Society selected him one of its youngest fellows. He became professor of gravitational physics at Cambridge in 1977, and in 1979 he was named to Cambridge’s Lucasian professorship of mathematics, a post once held by Isaac Newton.
In 1979, Stephen Hawking’s notable work on black holes incited Cambridge to select him as the Lucasian Professor of Mathematics, a position held by Isaac Newton in 1669. Hawking’s doctoral thesis was released to the public in 2017 on a University of Cambridge site, which crashed because of colossal amounts of traffic.
Hawking was made a Commander of the Order of the British Empire (CBE) in 1982 and a Companion of Honor in 1989. Hawking made commercial success with a few works of famous science in which he examined his theories and cosmology overall. His book A Brief History of Time showed up on the Sunday Times bestseller list for a record-breaking 237 weeks.
Stephen Hawking was a Fellow of the Royal Society, a lifetime member of the Pontifical Academy of Sciences, and a beneficiary of the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the highest civilian award in the United States. In 2002, Hawking was positioned number 25 in the BBC’s poll of the 100 Greatest Britons.
He likewise got the Copley Medal from the Royal Society in 2006 and the U.S. Official Medal of Freedom in 2009. In 2008 he acknowledged a meeting research seat at the Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics in Waterloo, Ontario, Canada.
Stephen Hawking got the 2015 BBVA Foundation Frontiers of Knowledge Award in Basic Sciences imparted to Viatcheslav Mukhanov for finding that the galaxies were formed from quantum vacillations in the early Universe. At the 2016 Pride of Britain Awards, Hawking got the lifetime achievement award “for his contribution to science and British culture”. In the wake of getting the award from Prime Minister Theresa May, Hawking cleverly mentioned that she did not look for his assistance with Brexit.
Stephen Hawking was a member of the Advisory, Board of the Starmus Festival, and played a significant role in recognizing and advancing science communication. The Stephen Hawking Medal for Science Communication is an annual award started in 2016 to honor members of the arts community for contributions that assist with building awareness of science.
Stephen Hawking died at 76 years old in his home in Cambridge, England, early in the morning of 14 March 2018 in the wake of living with motor neuron disease for over 50 years.
Stephen Hawking Google Doodle
On January 8, 2022, Google featured a video Doodle on its home page for celebrating Stephen Hawking’s 80th Birthday. From impacting black holes to the Big Bang, his theories on the origins and mechanics of the universe revolutionized modern physics while his best-selling books made the field broadly available to a large number of readers around the world.
To best honor the life, virtuoso, and mankind of Stephen Hawking on what might have been his 80th birthday celebration, Google has created a two-minute video to be shown on the organization’s home page. The video, made by Google Doodler Matthew Cruickshank, is loaded with quotes from Hawking (specially created in his voice) and is vigorously propelled by the graphics of games from the ZX Spectrum computer.